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Real questions and answers for the 2017 national civil service exams [provincial level + city]
First, matters needing attention
1. This question consists of two parts: given materials and answering requirements. The test time is 180 minutes. Among them, the reference time limit for reading a given material is 50 minutes, and the reference time limit for answering is 130 minutes.
2. Please fill in your name and admission ticket number with a black handwriting pen or signature pen at the designated position on the question book and answer card, and fill in the number corresponding to the admission ticket number with a 2B pencil.
3． Please use black pen or signature pen to answer within the area specified on the answer sheet. Answers beyond the answer area are invalid.
4． Candidates can start answering questions only after the invigilator announces the start of the exam.
5． All questions are answered in modern Chinese. Failure to answer as required will not result in a score.
6. When the invigilator announces the end of the exam, the candidate should stop answering immediately, turn over the question book, answer card, and draft paper on the table, and wait for the invigilator to confirm that the quantity is correct and leave, before leaving.
Folding answer cards is strictly prohibited!
Second, given information
"Front side lotus, three sides willow, one city, mountains and half city lake." This is an ancient poet's description of the city scenery, read the longing. For a city, water can make it more aura. Water system construction is not only an important part of urban construction, but also an important way to improve urban ecology, image and function. And fully exploring the beauty of the city's water environment is the general trend of the development of human settlements and the future development of the city.
The city water system of S City is 120 kilometers long, with a water area of 6.3 million square meters and a green area on both sides of the water system of 12.2 million square meters. The water system is not only an important place for citizens' leisure sightseeing, fitness and entertainment, but also an important part of the urban landscape of S City.
In order to conscientiously implement the overall requirements of the Municipal Party Committee and the municipal government for "high-level and high-quality urban construction," the Urban Water Management Office will strive to create a beautiful environment with the goal of building a "beautiful water system ."
The beauty of the urban water system is not only reflected in the water, but also in the green of the two sides. After years of construction and maintenance, the overall greening effect of the urban water system in city S is good. However, some rivers still have problems such as insufficient green amount, lack of color, and low level of management and protection.
The person in charge of the Urban Water System Management Office said that this year, while strengthening the greening management and protection of the water system, it will focus on improving the greening level on both sides of the Lianxin River.
For the important parts along the Lianxin River, high-standard greening will be carried out to increase the number of trees. For the general green space on both sides of the river, a combination of shrubs, colorful leaf trees and wild flowers will be planted to enrich the green color and increase the entire Lianxin River. Greenness.
Water is the first factor affecting plant growth. Taking into account the actual situation of drought and water shortage in S city, in order to improve the quality of greenbelt management and protection along the Lianxinhe River and ensure that the greenbelt irrigation is in place, 240,000 meters of pipeline will be laid in conditions along the Lianxinhe River and sprinkler irrigation will be implemented.
In order to further improve the level of management and protection of water system greening, the water management department will change from extensive management to fine management and protection, strengthen management and protection through measures such as rewarding and punishing poor, and eliminating the last position, and strive to create a "water system image".
Due to the lack of necessary lighting facilities such as street lamps, even the Xinhe River lacks landscape effects at night, and nearby residents are not comfortable to take a walk or walk. At the same time, there are certain hidden dangers in social security.
"Although there are street lighting facilities on the shore, they have not been illuminated before." Recently, when the reporter came to the east bank of the Lianxin River, the residents of the community told the reporter, "At night, it is dark and I dare not go to the river."
According to the investigation by the Urban Water Management Office, the two banks of Lianxin River are 102 kilometers long. At present, only the street lights on the 10 km section can be used normally; the street lights on the 5 km section cannot be used due to years of disrepair; on the other 87 km section, there is no Install street lights.
It is understood that with the development of the city, the residential areas along the line have sprung up, and some relatively "remote" areas in the past have also become prosperous areas. People on both sides of the strait have put forward higher requirements for the night lighting of Lianxin River.
In response to the needs of the people, the water system management department decided to light up the Lianxin River, repair the lighting facilities that were not available, and install street lights in the areas where lighting facilities were needed.
A person in charge of the Urban Water Management Office said that the lighting project will focus on solving the lighting problems in the surrounding living areas but lacking lighting facilities. At the same time, in order to make the lighting facilities a scene of the Lianxin River, some artistic lamps and lanterns were selected at the node to make it coordinate with the water system landscape.
"There should be more parking lots on the north bank of the Taiping River, " said Mr. Wu, a citizen. The person in charge of the Urban Water System Management Office stated that in improving the convenience of the people, it will combine the actual situation of the water system and closely focus on solving the key and hot issues reflected by the citizens and vigorously improve the construction of service facilities.
In view of the situation of the Taiping River and the urban water system that are far away from the downtown area, in order to facilitate more citizens to visit, based on the existing bus lines, the Urban Water Management Office will actively coordinate relevant departments and continue to increase bus lines.
In order to meet the needs of citizens for fitness and sightseeing, the original 15 km green road of the Taiping River will be perfected. By the end of July, the newly opened 35 kilometers of green roads from Sports Avenue to the Botanical Garden were all put into use. At the same time, on the premise of ensuring safety, select suitable locations along the Lianxin River and Taiping River and set up fishing areas; plan to build public toilets and parking lots on both sides of the strait to meet the needs of tourists.
The water management department has no law enforcement power and has become a “short board” in the current urban water management work. Due to the lack of necessary law enforcement authority, water system managers can only persuade and educate even if they find that they are occupying or destroying green, without effective means to stop and punish them.
"If they listen, it's better. If they don't listen, we have no better way." A water-level grass-roots manager felt helpless. Because some illegal acts cannot be stopped and dealt with in a timely manner, the law enforcement of the water system has fallen into the embarrassing situation of "can't control or control".
To solve this problem, this year, City S set up an urban water system inspection team to strengthen law enforcement against illegal and uncivilized acts such as encroachment on green space, barbecues, destruction of facilities and equipment, private swimming down the river, and drainage of rivers.
Although the water management department has continuously strengthened safety management through various measures, it still cannot completely prevent people from going down the river, and the drowning incidents that follow are worrying.
In response to this, the city's water system management department has vigorously strengthened the construction of the safety system, installed protective fences in unsafe areas where watercourses are prone to unauthorized swimming, and further strengthened safety management. At present, the fenced river has reached 15 kilometers.
A few days ago, the reporter saw on the south bank of the Taiping River City Plaza that a row of green fences had been installed on the bank. The Chief of the Urban Water Management Office's Supervision and Security Section told reporters that this section of the river is 3.5 kilometers long, and all the fences have been installed. After the fences are installed, the number of people swimming here has been significantly reduced.
This fall, the water system management department will also add 11,000 meters of hedges, shrubs and other plants in swimming areas such as Lianxin River, and install monitoring to detect and stop swimming behaviors in a timely manner.
At the same time as the installation of protective fences, the water management department also installed 800 warning signs along the river channels and hanged 700 warning signs to remind that swimming is strictly prohibited; and equipped with 100 security personnel to maintain the safety order of the river channels and protect the lives of the people.
A delegation inspected the construction of water systems in foreign cities. The following are the inspection notes made by the head of the delegation:
● Looking at some famous rivers in the world, most of them have gone through the tortuous course of "polluting first, then treating" and "developing first, then protecting". After suffering revenge from nature, people began to think more carefully about the management of river systems, and in the process of continuous practice and exploration, gradually formed more advanced river system planning concepts and mature management experiences, which are worthy of our reference.
● The water management systems of Britain and France are not the same, but there are still many things in common that are worth studying. Both Britain and France have established a relatively complete system of water laws and regulations, which can be strictly followed by all sectors of society, and all water activities are handled in accordance with the law. The law clearly stipulates the responsibilities, powers, and obligations of management agencies at various levels, including the state and local governments; at the same time, the responsibilities of government agencies, departments, and enterprises participating in water affairs activities are clearly separated, and each of them can fully play its role within the scope of authority granted by law . Both countries have strict control over illegal incidents such as pollution discharge.
● In the long-term industrialization process, the United Kingdom and France have been continuously improving the management of water extraction permission and water resource development and protection through legislation to address water supply and water pollution issues, and gradually improve the management system. Multi-head decentralized management is basically unified to comprehensive and centralized management with the basin as a unit. All water-related activities are under the unified management of the water management department of the river basin, and they can cooperate with each other according to the division of labor, affairs, and enterprises.
● Since the 1970s, some developed European and American developed countries with high levels of urbanization have begun to attach importance to the protection of urban river wetlands, and have begun to restore some of the damaged urban river wetlands to return to nature. The concept of "natural rivers" builds urban ecological riverbanks, constructs close and hydrophilic urban waterfront landscapes, etc., and restores the natural ecology and environmental functions of urban river wetlands on the basis of ensuring flood control security. In the mid-1970s, Germany made an attempt to protect and create nature, and began to demolish river channels channelized by concrete throughout the country to restore the river to a state close to nature.
● As early as 1903, Griffin, a famous American designer, proposed a plan for the integration of man and nature in the design plan of the new Australian capital Canberra: an artificial lake was dug in the center of the city, which divided the capital into one two. The east and west ends of the lake each have a bridge across the lake, which connects the whole city into one. This artificial lake laid the foundation for the beautiful layout of Canberra's overall space.
● The concept of "coexistence of people and water" changed the traditional flood-resisting strategy of driving floods out of cities. It was proposed that urban water systems should be combined with urban land use planning and building structure technology to continuously increase the regional water surface rate and adjust the infiltration and evaporation ratio of rainwater runoff , And gradually restore the natural circulation of the water system. While maintaining the ecological balance of the water body, some low-lying areas are allowed to be used as flood detention areas during the flood period. Floods are incorporated into an important part of the urban landscape, emphasizing the harmonious coexistence between human and water.
● The concept of "healthy working rivers" not only emphasizes the importance of protecting river ecosystems, but also recognizes the rationality of people's moderate development of water resources, and strives to strike a balance between river protection and development and utilization. The key is to ensure that the rivers being managed are at a suitable level of work and a healthy state of health. The concept of "healthy working rivers" not only emphasizes the importance of protecting and restoring river ecosystems, but also acknowledges the rationality of human society's moderate development of water resources: it clearly clarifies and advocates the restoration of the original natural state of rivers, and absolute environmental protection against any engineering construction The boundary between ideologies has also reversed the blind behavior of "reforming nature" and overexploiting water resources in an attempt to seek common guidelines for development and protection.
● "Dynamic river management" considers and analyzes the basin as a system from the perspective of regional river systems. Dynamic river management draws on past experience and lessons in the management of river system construction, and continuously improves and adjusts management methods in the management process based on river ecology, public feedback and new information.
● In the process of river basin management, the cooperation of some countries is divided into two levels, namely, cooperation between countries and cooperation between regions. The collaboration mechanism includes the exchange of information, regular meetings and coordination, which increases the opportunities for mutual recognition and cooperation.
● In addition to British and French river management fees, in addition to flood prevention security taxes, urban residents ’ living and factory sewage discharge fees, special industrial pollution fees, and fines, the rest are all funded by the government, which provides a powerful fund for river management. Protection.
● In Britain and France, water management activities are not only the function of the government, but also the common interests of factories, businesses, farmers and residents along the river. Investors or investors collectively played an important role in participating in the implementation of the plan. Various water councils participate in important decision-making discussions and fully express their opinions, making decision-making widely transparent and operable. Supervision of pollution depends mainly on reports from the public.
● Britain and France attach great importance to the establishment and improvement of various monitoring websites. In addition to the regular hydrological monitoring, the monitoring points along the river are more important to monitor water quality changes and publish them in real time for inquiries from all walks of life. A sound monitoring system has become an important basis for decision-making and law enforcement by management departments.
"Confucianism, Rouye" in the Han Dynasty Xu Shen's Shuo Wen Jie Zi. The word "soft" is exactly right, and the taste is all out. Song Ci expert Mr. Ye Jiaying specifically mentioned the "beauty of weak virtue" in Chinese culture in a program. Starting from the original meaning of the word "rou" of Confucianism, she explained the Chinese cultural character represented by Confucianism in multiple dimensions.
The word "ru" contains a word "need", and "need" has the meaning of "waiting". Confucius once said: "A gentleman hides his possessions and moves with the times. Why is it not good?" What Confucius is talking about here actually means "need", and it clearly shows a waiting attitude.
Han Suyin, a Chinese-English female writer, described an overseas Chinese: "He is a Chinese, has great patience, can wait and endure." This is indeed a typical and clear expression of the Chinese character. Han Suyin said after visiting the mainland of China, "I have rediscovered China's elasticity here--its inherent flexibility, which makes it immune to external crises and overcomes it again and again. Disturbance. "Therefore, although we say" Confucianism is soft ", it does not mean that weakness is weakness or abandonment. Lao Tzu believes that "the world is weaker than water", but "the strong one can win", which is exactly the reason that "the world is soft and the world is strong". As the saying goes, "dropping stones through" is a very typical example of "You Kegang".
In fact, only through the image of "water" can we truly appreciate the "softness" of "Confucianism". Softness is the most prominent feature of "water". In Chinese culture, water has a long tradition. For example, Lao Tzu said, "If good is water," he also said, "weakness of the weak". This so-called "weak" refers to the weakness of water. He also said that "water is good for all things without dispute", that is, water is good at nourishing all things and never competes, so the water contains the truth. The pipe thought, "Why is the water man? The origin of all things." And so on and so forth. We know that water is indefinite, and it will be shaped like what kind of container it is put into, but because there is no fixed shape, it can become all possible shapes. Character. More importantly, it reveals the traditional character of Chinese culture in a metaphorical and symbolic way. The cleverness of comparing Tao with water is that its meaning is pun intended: on the one hand, it establishes the basic image of ontology, so that people can understand the profound connotation of "Tao" from one place to another; With the basic orientation of moral theory, the virtue of water is used to highlight the moral character.
It should be said that the waiting attitude adopted by Chinese traditional culture has a deep relationship with the inherent "flexible" character of Confucianism. It has greatly affected the Chinese people's dealings with nature and with others. the way.
Here, we may compare the differences between classical technology and modern technology in cultural character and cultural orientation. From this, we can deeply understand the flexible characteristics of ancient Chinese culture. The classical technique shaped by this cultural orientation is not offensive and aggressive to conquer nature. For example, Dujiangyan, a great water conservancy project in ancient China, adopted the method of taking advantage of the situation and cleverly making use of natural resources, instead of adopting a method that went against nature to make nature benefit humanity. It can flood, drain, store water, and regulate water in a natural way.
Recently, an interview group of "Autumn Water, Long Water, and Beautiful China" investigated the construction of water ecological civilization in G City. The reporter found that the "water ecology + poverty alleviation" model in some districts and counties of G city has great reference significance for the underdeveloped regions to vigorously promote poverty alleviation while maintaining green mountains and green water.
City G is dominated by mountains and hills, accounting for 80.98% of the total area. The city's rivers are densely covered with rivers. The G River is the largest river in the city of G. It has two primary tributaries and ten secondary tributaries in various parts of the city. Data show that in the 1980s, the area of soil erosion in the three districts and 14 counties under the jurisdiction of G city reached 28.37%. After more than 30 years of governance, the ecological environment in some areas has improved significantly, and the transformation from the poor mountains to the green mountains has been basically realized.
Sister Zhou returned to Shangcun Village from Shanghe County five years ago to run a farmhouse. When the reporter checked the growth of aquatic plants along the river, she was washing vegetables on the shore, and the bamboo basket was filled with the white water radish from her own land.
"When I worked in the county seat, I heard that the river at home was cured, and I also built a rafting project, so I came back to open a farmhouse, and now I can earn more than 100,000 a year, much better than working." Sister Zhou had a smile on her face.
Mr. Zhang, director of Daxun Village, Shi County, bluntly said, "Before the treatment, there was poor mountain water. After treatment, you can grow lotus, tobacco, rice, and develop tourism."
The "Nanlu House" in Datuo Village was built during the Qianlong period of the Qing Dynasty. It still stands tall after the storm. Now there are still people living there. It is a good place for tourists to experience Hakka folk culture.
Under a big tree next to "Nanlu House", several villagers were sitting on a stone bench and chatting. The young girl in the village Wenwen answered the reporter's doubts about why the new house was unoccupied. "This is the unified planning of the village We built it with money and it didn't take long to build it. Some people are still renovating. "
When the reporter arrived in the small watershed in Ningxian County, Fu Mou, the deputy director of the county water conservation bureau, stood on a hillside full of navel oranges and introduced the tricks of small watershed management: wearing a cap on the top to conserve water, planting fruit on terraced hillsides, and dug out ponds Build fisheries and provide water for drought resistance.
It is reported that in the process of managing small watersheds, Ningxian insisted on combining soil and water loss management with modern agricultural development, combining small watershed management with the construction of a water conservation science and technology demonstration park. The idea of "development", through the support of project funds, guides the major household to manage-Lusen Modern Agricultural Ecological Technology Development Co., Ltd., leased more than 1,500 hectares of soil and water loss mountainous land.
Laimou, the on-site manager of Lvsen Company, retired from poverty alleviation after retiring, and led the villagers to increase income while maintaining soil and water. The dark face witnessed the old man's love for navel orange cultivation.
When descending the mountain, the reporter met Brother Li, who was riding a motorcycle to work in the mountains. He was an employee of Lusen Company and was almost sixty. He described his income situation, "60 to 80 yuan a day, capable of 15 to 20 days a month. Renting the mountain land to the farmers of Lusen Company, 5 years later can be divided into 20% of profit per mu."
"Old age, it is very difficult to work outside, and now the income is already very good." Brother Li seemed very satisfied with the work at his doorstep.
The Shixian Soil and Water Conservation Popular Science Demonstration Park used to be sparse in forest and grassland, poor in farmland water conservancy facilities, poor soil, serious sand erosion, and fragile ecological environment. After the demonstration park project was started, through the combination of engineering measures with biological measures and agricultural farming measures, the combination of mountain and water management, slope management and gully management, a "famous, excellent, special, new" economic fruit tree forest was built. The organic unification of ecological and economic benefits has been achieved.
The construction of the demonstration park was started in October 2014, attracting a large amount of private capital and the general public to participate in soil erosion control. During the construction process, the government-led, department-sponsored, and unified planning and design methods were adopted to organically combine the construction of the demonstration park with eco-tourism, so as to maximize the protective development of water and land resources.
Hongda Ecological Agriculture Development Co., Ltd. participated in the construction of this park. The person in charge of the company Huang has invested about 20 million. He told reporters: "Part of the investment is part of the government's support."
Huang has a trading company in Shenzhen and his business is good. “I wanted to go home and try a farmhouse. I did n’t expect the government to pay so much attention, so I stayed.” When he was busy letting reporters taste the grapes from the park, he firmly stated his plans for the next step. Keep the water, and heal the mountains so that the folks can live a good life. "
The director of the Water Resources Protection Bureau of G City praised Huang's self-study ability: "He has more books on water protection in his office than I do."
"Private water conservation households hire local farmers to participate in governance and development, and the people can directly receive the same pay as migrant workers, which further promotes the work of soil erosion control." Wang of Shixian County Water Conservation Bureau explained "water ecology + poverty reduction "the benefits of.
Xiao Chen is a migrant worker who returns to his hometown. He earns more than 4,000 yuan a month in Hongda. "I used to work in Guangdong and was too far away from home. Now I can ride a motorcycle to work and take care of my home."
"Navel orange fragrance, water conservation first" is a living case that gives priority to both ecology and people's livelihood. It is a full affirmation of the construction of aquatic ecological civilization by people in soil and water loss areas, and a vivid portrayal of the "water ecology + poverty alleviation" model.
The Book of Changes is one of the earliest philosophical works in China. The changer also changes, and the main theme of the Book of Changes is that everything changes. There are many changes in water: water is amorphous and suitable for the environment; water has three states, normal temperature is water, low temperature icing, high temperature gas, clouds, rain, fog, dew, and hail are all different forms of water. Water is everywhere: there is water in the soil, there is crystalline water in the rocks, plants have water from the roots to leaves, animals have water from the head to the feet, and the human body has a water content of more than 60%. The ubiquitous water is ever-changing, and our ancestors may first realize that everything has changed from the change of water, which has become a philosophy that has never been easy forever.
The shape of water is ever-changing, but its structure is very simple. Water molecule is composed of one oxygen atom and two hydrogen atoms, which is one of the simplest compounds in nature. This illustrates an important philosophy: everything in the universe is ever-changing and ever changing, and complexity comes from simplicity. The great philosophers and scientists at home and abroad, both ancient and modern, know this well. Lao Tzu said: "The Tao has one life, one life two, two life three, and three life." Einstein said, "The simpler theory covers more different content and has broader applications. This is more convincing. Theory. "
Confucius said: "The wise are happy, the benevolent is happy; the wise are moving, the benevolent is static." However, the benevolent is happy. The sea and the river are all inclusive, one of which is inclusive. Confucius said: "The benevolent is also the person." The benevolent is a popular person, and water benefits all living things. In severe droughts, grass seedlings are scorched, and red land is thousands of miles away. Confucius also advocated the doctrine of the mean, advocating that everything must not go to extremes. Water is moderately beneficial, and too much is a disaster; just as parents caring for their children are good for their healthy growth, coddling is harmful. "The Analects of Confucius" says: "It's too late." For this reason, can the philosophy of water be the exception? Reviewing the history of biological evolution, different species are continuously differentiated from a common ancestor, and water plays a key role in each link. The origin of living things is inconclusive at present, the theory of terrestrial origin, the theory of deep-sea origin, the origin of universe ... a lot of opinions are yet to be verified. But no matter what origin is inseparable from water. Water is necessary for all living things, without water there is no living things. Water gives birth to all living things, and even love. Knowing this, how can the benevolent be unhappy? The benevolent and the wise travel hand in hand between the mountains and rivers, both Leshan and LeShui, benevolence and wisdom complement each other.
3. Answering requirements
(1) Based on "Given Information 1", what are the main measures implemented by City S to build a beautiful water system and a beautiful environment? (10 points)
Requirements: (1) generalization by sections; (2) accurate and complete representation; (3) no more than 150 words.
The main measures are: 1. Implement a comprehensive greening project to increase the amount of greenery and improve the level and quality of greening management and protection. 2. Implement lighting project and repair and install lighting facilities. Third, vigorously carry out convenient projects, improve infrastructure construction and improve service levels. 4. Establish inspection teams to clarify law enforcement authority and increase law enforcement. Fifth, vigorously strengthen the safety system construction, install guardrails, add hedges, shrubs and other plants, install monitoring, hang warning signs, and equip with security. (149 words)
(2) If you are the secretary of the delegation, please summarize the inspection notes of the head of the delegation into an outline of an "Investigation Report on the Construction of Foreign Urban Water Systems" based on "given information 2" (15 marks)
Requirements: (1) Accurate extraction and reasonable induction; (2) Clear hierarchy and presentation in sections; (3) No more than 350 words.